Linux Frequently Asked Questions

ഗ്നു/ലിനക്സിനെ കുറിച്ചുള്ള ഈ താള് അവശ്യം വേണ്ട വിവരങ്ങള്‍ നല്‍കുന്നു. ഈ FAQ നിങ്ങളുടെ ആകാംക്ഷയെ തൃപ്തിപ്പെടുത്തുമെന്ന് പ്രതീക്ഷിക്കുന്നു.


പൊതു ചോദ്യങ്ങള്‍

Are "GNU/Linux" and "Linux" any different?

നിങ്ങള്‍ രണ്ട് വാക്കുകളും അങ്ങോട്ടും ഇങ്ങോട്ടും ഉപയോഗിക്കാറുണ്ടല്ലോ. എന്താണിതിന്റെയെല്ലാം അര്‍ഥം?

ഗ്നു സിസ്റ്റത്തിന്റെ ഒരു പ്രധാന ഘടകത്തെയാണ് (ഇതിനെ കേണല്‍(kernel) എന്ന് വിളിക്കും), ലിനക്സ്എന്നത് കൊണ്ട് സൂചിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്. ശരിക്കും ഇന്ന് ഉപയോക്താക്കള്‍ അവരുടെ കമ്പ്യൂട്ടറുകളില്‍ ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നത്, "ഗ്നു/ലിനക്സ് സിസ്റ്റത്തിന്റെ ഡിസ്ട്രിബ്യൂഷനുകളാണ്".

"ലിനക്സ്" എന്ന വാക്ക് മാത്രം പൊതുവെ ശ്രദ്ധിക്കപ്പെട്ടതിനാല്‍, സാധാരണ ആളുകള്‍ "ഗ്നു/ലിനക്സ്" സിസ്റ്റത്തെ മുഴുവന്‍ വെറും "ലിനക്സ്" എന്ന് മാത്രം വിളിച്ച് തുടങ്ങി. ഈ നാമകരണം ഒട്ടേറെ വിവാദങ്ങള്‍ വിളിച്ച് വരുത്തി.

സാങ്കേതികപരമായും ദാര്‍ശനികപരമായും ഗ്നു/ലിനക്സ് എന്ന് ഈ സംവിധാനത്തെ വിളിക്കുന്നതാണ് കൂടുതല്‍ അര്‍ത്ഥവത്തായത്: സ്വതന്ത്ര സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയര്‍ പ്രസ്ഥാനത്തിന്റെ ഊര്‍ജ്ജസ്വലമായ പ്രവര്‍ത്തനങ്ങള്‍ തുടങ്ങിയതും അവ തുടര്‍ന്ന് കൊണ്ട് പോകുന്നതും ഗ്നു പദ്ധതി മൂലമാണ്.

വിന്‍ഡോസ് എന്നൊരു സംവിധാനം മാത്രമെ ഈ ഭൂമിയില്‍ ഉള്ളു എന്ന് വിശ്വസിക്കുന്ന കമ്പ്യൂട്ടര്‍ ഉപയോക്താക്കള്‍ക്ക് ലിനക്സ് എന്ന വാക്കായിരിക്കും ഒരു പക്ഷെ പ്രയോഗികമായും സൗകര്യപ്രദമായും തോന്നുക.

We use both denominations and hope you will not be offended by that.

And what has that software to do with a gnu?

When Richard Stallman started to design GNU, the main system in use was Unix, which is proprietary. Because GNU is similar in function to (and compatible with) Unix, but is free software, he coined the term GNU which stands for GNU's Not Unix. It's a recursive acronym. (if you enjoy that kind of humour check out what GNU Hurd means).

Is Linux a registered trademark?

Yes. You cannot sell any random software under the name of Linux®. The trademark is held by the Linux Mark Institute.

Is GNU/Linux the only free operating system available?

No. GNU/Linux is by far the most widely used free system; however a number of other systems exist.

These include the UNIX derivatives FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and OpenSolaris, the BeOS clone Haiku OS, the Windows NT clone ReactOS, the DOS clone FreeDOS, Plan 9 from Bell Labs and Syllable, just to name a few.

Is Mac OSX a distribution of Linux?

No. There are a few free software components in Mac OSX, and it is technically similar to GNU/Linux systems. But overall, it is proprietary software: all the issues about Windows apply to it as well.

Understanding free software

Are "Open Source" and "Free Software" the same thing?

Yes and no.

Technically, the great majority of open source programs are free software and vice-versa.

In terms of philosophy, things are quite different. The term "open source" was coined to make "free software" more attractive, its supporters see open source software as a better way to make software.

Supporters of the "free software" term value the freedom, not merely the way software is made, and thus argue that the term "open source" misses the point.

Which term you employ simply depends on your vision of software.

Why are some Linux distributions sold, not given away?

Some websites actually sell distributions of Linux. So, why do you write it is "free as speech and available at no charge"?

The concept of free software, refers to freedom, not price. You have the freedom to copy, study, modify, and give free software away.

Most companies developing free software make money by selling services around their software, rather than the software itself. This is sometimes done by selling everything as a package: the customer buys the CD, book, and support contract at once. The software can still guarantee your freedoms.

More: സ്വതന്ത്ര സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയറുകളെ എങ്ങനെയൊക്കെ തെറ്റിധരിക്കാം | FLOSS concept booklet.

Why are some Linux distributions not fully free?

Some Linux distributions are available at no charge, but include restrictive software. Why is it so?

There are typically three types of policies regarding the inclusion of non-free software:

  • Some GNU/Linux distributors allow non-free software in order to enable hardware functionality. This happens because some hardware manufacturers such as NVidia do not care about their customers' freedoms, and only release restricting firmware and drivers (some of them don't even release anything, like Broadcom). These are available at no cost (they are freeware) but under restrictive licenses. Distributions such as Ubuntu thus include such components to improve hardware compatibility.

  • Some GNU/Linux distributors do not compromise on the freedom of software, and make sure their distribution are entirely free. Such is the case of Trisquel, which is a Ubuntu derivative with all restricting components removed.

  • Some GNU/Linux distributors assemble free and restrictive software without distinction. Such distributors would not like users to think of their freedom, and rather advertise only the technical capabilities of their product. Using such distributions isn't much better than using Windows. We value your freedom and recommend you choose carefully!

Is Mac OS also a free operating system?

Do all the reasons for avoiding Windows apply to Mac OS?

It's quite common for Mac users to believe they are exempt from restrictions associated with Windows. Unfortunately such is not the case.

Mac OSX does have some low-level components which are free software; and Apple puts less energy into customer lock-in (with some notable efforts such as BootCamp).
However, the end-user is still fundamentally restricted — because of the proprietary license, he/she cannot use Mac OSX for all purposes, nor copy, study, modify, or redistribute it.

Happily, because these freedoms matter a lot, it's possible to run popular GNU/Linux distributions (such as Ubuntu) on Mac computers.

Aren't Linux users the ones who make illegal downloads?

Isn't Linux about cracking, "piracy" and illegal download websites?

No!

Wherever you read or heard this you should update your views. Linux is completely distinct from such things. Whether you want to do them, or whether you prefer intelligent, legal downloads, Linux will work just as well as Windows. Unfortunately you can't identify gangsters by the make of their cars; the same thing goes for their operating system.

GNU/Linux was made by people who don't like the thought of all the world's computers running just one company's proprietary products. There is certainly nothing wrong with that!

Read more in the article: സ്വതന്ത്ര സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയറുകളെ എങ്ങനെയൊക്കെ തെറ്റിധരിക്കാം.

Is Linux a form of communism?

"Everything has to be free" and "No one owns anything" sounds somewhat frightening. Are Linux and its GPL License something for anarchists or communists?

Linux has nothing to do with a political system and anyone — regardless of their political views — can use it. We have this explained simply in our article സ്വതന്ത്ര സോഫ്റ്റ്‌വെയറുകളെ എങ്ങനെയൊക്കെ തെറ്റിധരിക്കാം.

Installing Linux

Does Linux come pre-installed on computers?

Yes it does! We have built a website specially for that purpose, LinuxPreloaded.com, listing vendors that sell Linux desktops and laptops.

Note that buying new hardware is not necessary to use GNU/Linux!

Can I get GNU/Linux in my own language?

Yes. All main distributions, such as the ones we recommend, are all available in the main languages around, and have support for many keyboard types.

Unlike Windows, all languages are included on each installation CD, so there is no need for you to download (or pay for!) another whole version to merely change the language on your computer.

Is it legal to install Linux on my computer?

There is a shiny Windows sticker on it! Am I allowed to erase Windows or use it together with Linux?

Yes. It is absolutely, completely legal (providing of course it's your computer!).

The sticker on it is purely marketing, it has no legal value. We believe it is one fundamental right to choose which software to run on our own hardware.

In fact this right is threatened by the rise of things such as DRM and Trusted Computing. Read our article "സ്വതന്ത്ര സമൂഹത്തിന് വേണ്ടി നിലകൊള്ളുന്നു" for more information.

Do I have to purchase a new computer to run Linux?

Not at all. It will run happily on your own computer.

The only thing you might be worried about is using very recent special hardware, such as graphics cards. Otherwise, almost all Linux distributions can run on normal PCs (often called "i386" or "x86" computers), 64-bit-processor computers and Apple Mac computers (including the G5, G4, G3 series). Read how you can try or install Linux on your computer, be it instead of or together with Windows.

ഗ്നു/ലിനക്സ് ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നത്

Will Microsoft Office run on Linux?

No.

It is technically possible to adapt Microsoft Office to Linux, but Microsoft isn't keen on allowing Office users to choose their operating system. There are other issues with MS Office and openness — like Microsoft's fierce opposition to supporting the OpenDocument format.

However, a complete, Free, reliable office suite exists: OpenOffice.org. Or you can choose its Open Source community-driven alternative, LibreOffice, which is a fork of OpenOffice.org. They will both happily use all your existing office files in MS-Word, MS-Excel, and MS-PowerPoint format, and are really free (both as in freedom and as in price). And they run on Windows as well as on Linux.

OpenOffice.org   LibreOffice.org

Can I play my DVDs and MP3s under GNU/Linux?

The simple answer to this question would be "yes", however this is only half the truth.

Quite a few Linux distributions do not include MP3 playback software due to the patent situation of the MP3 format. These patent issues do not affect the user directly, so most distributions make it fairly easy to install MP3 support over the Internet after the installation, making it possible to legally play MP3 files, for non-commercial use.

DVDs, on the other hand, are a more difficult situation. Most, if not all, DVDs are encrypted using a system called "CSS". There is a widely supported free software, called libdvdcss, capable of decrypting DVD videos. However, circumventing the restriction on your DVDs is illegal in many parts of the world, including the USA and the European Union.

There is a legal solution to play your DVDs on Linux where libdvdcss is illegal. The Fluendo company has developed an (non-free) application for that purpose which can be purchased from their website.

Non-encrypted DVDs, which include most home-made DVDs, play perfectly well with only free software.

Can I play popular 3D games under GNU/Linux?

Yes and No: Some games, for example some id Software games like the Quake series and Doom 3, Unreal Tournament, Cold War, and many more have Linux versions.

Most popular games, alas, only work on Windows and occasionally on Mac OS. Some Windows games, such as Call of Duty 4 or GTA Vice City, can be run on GNU/Linux with Wine or its non-free variant CrossOver, which involves some unpleasant effort for the user. For a list of games known to work on Wine, see their games database.

More questions?

If you have a question that is not covered here, there are many communities to help you. Our "ഇനിയുമേറെ" section will help you find the right place to ask.

If you can think of a frequent question that we haven't answered yet, do let us know, or even better, file a new bug.