Frequently asked questions

Our page about GNU/Linux covers the essential information. We hope this FAQ list can help if you are more curious.

Preguntes generals:

És el mateix "GNU/Linux" que "Linux"?

Us referiu a l'un i a l'altre alternativament, hi ha alguna diferència?

Originalment, Linux és refereix a un component bàsic del sistema operatiu (anomenat nucli) que es va encaixar dins el sistema operatiu GNU. Tècnicament, els usuaris d'avui en dia, el que utilitzen són "distribucions del sistema GNU/Linux".

A la pràctica, la paraula "Linux" es va estendre molt més fàcilment, i avui la gent es refereix a tot el sistema operatiu només com a "Linux". No us creuríeu les discussions que provoca aquest tema.

Calling the system GNU/Linux is much more meaningful, technically (end-users use a lot of "GNU" and a little of "Linux") but also philosophically: the strength and momentum of the Free Software movement started with and are still carried by the GNU project.

Anomenar el sistema Linux és més pràctic per els usuaris que creuen que Windows és l'única cosa que hi ha sobre la capa de la Terra.

To avoid confusion, we use "GNU/Linux" to refer to operating system distributions that include GNU software and the Linux kernel. When we use "Linux" without the GNU part, we refer to the kernel.

And what has that software to do with a GNU?

When Richard Stallman started to design GNU, the main system in use was Unix, which is proprietary. Because GNU is similar in function to (and compatible with) Unix, but is free software, he coined the term GNU which stands for GNU's Not Unix. It's a recursive acronym. If you enjoy that kind of humour, check out what GNU Hurd means.

Linux és una marca registrada?

Yes. You cannot sell any random software under the name of Linux®. The trademark is held by the Linux Mark Institute.

GNU/Linux és l'únic sistema operatiu lliure que existeix?

No. GNU/Linux és de bon tros els sistema operatiu lliure més utilitzat. Tanmateix, existeixen altres sistemes operatius lliures.

These include the UNIX derivatives FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, the BeOS clone Haiku OS, the Windows NT clone ReactOS, the DOS clone FreeDOS, and Syllable, just to name a few.

Is macOS a distribution of GNU/Linux?

No. There are a few free software components in macOS, and it is technically similar to GNU/Linux systems. But overall, it is proprietary software: all the issues about Windows apply to it as well.

Entenent el programari lliure

"Programari lliure" i "Codi obert" és el mateix?

Yes and no. Technically, the great majority of open source programs are free software and vice-versa.

Filosòficament, les coses són un xic diferents. La denominació "codi obert" es va inventar per fer el "programari lliure" més atractiu. Els seus defensors pensen que el codi obert és una forma de millorar el desenvolupament del programari.

Supporters of the "free software" term value the freedom, not merely the way software is made, and thus argue that the term "open source" misses the point.

La denominació que utilitzeu només dependrà de la visió que tingueu sobre el programari.

Why are some GNU/Linux distributions sold, not given away?

Some websites actually sell distributions of GNU/Linux. So, why do you write it is "free as speech and available at no charge"?

The concept of free software, refers to freedom, not price. You have the freedom to copy, study, modify, and give free software away.

La majoria de les empreses que desenvolupen programari lliure fan diners venent serveis sobre el seu programari, enlloc de vendre el mateix programari. Això s'acostuma a vendre en un mateix paquet: els clients compren el CD, el llibre i el suport contractat per un temps determinat. Tot això no us treu cap dret sobre el programari.

Més: Com no entendre el Programari Lliure | Opuscle de conceptes de programari lliure i de font oberta.

Why are some GNU/Linux distributions not fully free?

Some GNU/Linux distributions are available at no charge, but include restrictive software. Why is it so?

Hi ha tres menes de polítiques respecte de la inclusió o no de programari privatiu.

  • Algunes distribucions GNU/Linux inclouen programari privatiu perquè hi ha maquinari que el necessita per funcionar correctament. This happens because some hardware manufacturers such as NVidia do not care about their customers' freedoms, and only release restricting firmware and drivers (some of them don't even release anything, like Broadcom). These are available at no cost (they are freeware) but under restrictive licenses. Distributions such as Ubuntu thus include such components to improve hardware compatibility.

  • Some GNU/Linux distributors do not compromise on the freedom of software, and make sure their distribution are entirely free. Such is the case of Trisquel, which is a Ubuntu derivative with all restricting components removed.

  • Algunes distribucions GNU/Linux creen distribucions amb programari lliure i privatiu sense distinció. A aquestes distribucions no els hi agrada que l'usuari pensi en la seva llibertat, i més aviat només anuncien les capacitats tècniques del seu producte. Utilitzar aquestes distribucions no és molt millor que utilitzar Windows. Nosaltres valorem la nostra llibertat i recomanem que trieu amb compte.

Is macOS also a free operating system?

Do all the reasons for avoiding Windows apply to macOS?

Molts usuaris de Mac creuen que les restriccions associades a Windows no els afecten. Desafortunadament, això no és així.

macOS does have some low-level components which are free software; and Apple puts less energy into customer lock-in (with some notable efforts such as BootCamp).

However, the end-user is still fundamentally restricted — because of the proprietary license, he/she cannot use macOS for all purposes, nor copy, study, modify, or redistribute it.

Happily, because these freedoms matter a lot, it's possible to run popular GNU/Linux distributions (such as Ubuntu) on Mac computers.

Aren't GNU/Linux users the ones who make illegal downloads?

Isn't GNU/Linux about cracking, "piracy" and illegal download websites?

No. Wherever you read or heard this, you should update your views. GNU/Linux is completely distinct from such things. Whether you want to do them, or whether you prefer intelligent, legal downloads, GNU/Linux will work just as well as Windows. Unfortunately you can't identify gangsters by the make of their cars; the same thing goes for their operating system.

GNU/Linux va ser creat per persones a qui no els hi agrada que tots els ordinadors utilitzin productes privatius d'una sola empresa. I en això no hi ha cap mal!

Més informació sobre aquest tema: Com no entendre el Programari Lliure.

Is GNU/Linux a form of communism?

"Everything has to be free" and "No one owns anything" sounds somewhat frightening. Are GNU/Linux and its GPL License something for anarchists or communists?

GNU/Linux has nothing to do with a political system and anyone — regardless of their political views — can use it. We have this explained simply in our article Com no entendre el Programari Lliure.

Installing GNU/Linux

Does GNU/Linux come pre-installed on computers?

Yes it does. LinuxPreloaded.com has built a website specially for that purpose, listing vendors that sell GNU/Linux desktops and laptops.

Veieu com, no cal comprar nou maquinari, per utilitzar GNU/Linux!

Puc tenir GNU/Linux en el meu idioma?

Sí. Totes les distribucions principals, com les que us recomanem aquí, estan disponibles en moltes llengües, i tenen suport per a molts tipus de teclats.

A diferència de Windows, totes les llengües s'inclouen a cada CD d'instal·lació, així no hi ha cap necessitat de descarregar (o pagar) una versió totalment diferent per canviar la llengua del vostre ordinador.

Is it legal to install GNU/Linux on my computer?

There is a shiny Windows sticker on it! Am I allowed to erase Windows or use it together with GNU/Linux?

Yes. It is absolutely, completely legal, provided of course it's your computer!

L'etiqueta és pura mercadotècnia, no té cap valor legal. Creiem que és un dret fonamental poder triar quin programari instal·lar en el nostre ordinador.

In fact this right is threatened by the rise of things such as DRM and Trusted Computing. Read our article "Treballeu per a una societat lliure" for more information.

Do I have to purchase a new computer to run GNU/Linux?

No. Funcionarà perfectament en el vostre propi ordinador.

The only thing you might be worried about is using very recent special hardware, such as graphics cards. Otherwise, almost all GNU/Linux distributions can run on normal PCs (often called "i386" or "x86" computers), 64-bit-processor computers and Apple Mac computers. Read how you can try or install GNU/Linux on your computer, be it instead of or together with Windows.

Using GNU/Linux

Will Microsoft Office run on GNU/Linux?

No. It is technically possible to adapt Microsoft Office to GNU/Linux, but Microsoft isn't keen on allowing Office users to choose their operating system. There are other issues with MS Office and openness — like Microsoft's fierce opposition to supporting the OpenDocument format.

However, a complete, free, reliable office suite exists: LibreOffice. Or you can choose its close cousin, Apache OpenOffice. They will both happily use all your existing office files in MS-Word, MS-Excel, and MS-PowerPoint format, and are really free (both as in freedom and as in price). And they run on Windows as well as on GNU/Linux.

LibreOffice.org   OpenOffice.org

Puc reproduir els meus DVD i MP3 amb GNU/Linux?

La resposta ràpida a aquesta pregunta és "sí". Tanmateix, aquesta només seria una resposta parcial.

Quite a few GNU/Linux distributions do not include MP3 playback software due to the patent situation of the MP3 format. These patent issues do not affect the user directly, so most distributions make it fairly easy to install MP3 support over the Internet after the installation, making it possible to legally play MP3 files, for non-commercial use.

Els DVD, d'altra banda, estan en una situació un pèl delicada. La majoria de DVD estan xifrats amb un sistema anomenat CSS. Hi ha un programa lliure que dóna suport a aquest format, anomenat libdvdcss, capaç de desxifrar DVD. Tanmateix, esquivar les restriccions dels vostres DVD és il·legal en molts llocs del món, inclosos els EUA i la Unió Europea.

There is a legal solution to play your DVDs on GNU/Linux where libdvdcss is illegal. The Fluendo company has developed an (non-free) application for that purpose which can be purchased from their website.

Els DVD no xifrats, com la majoria de DVD que feu a casa, es poden reproduir perfectament utilitzant només programari lliure.

Puc jugar als jocs famosos en 3D amb GNU/Linux?

Yes and no. Some games, for example the Quake series, Rust, Counter-Strike, Tomb Raider, Portal, Left 4 Dead, and many more have GNU/Linux versions. Since the release of the popular Steam platform to the GNU/Linux operating system, the number of GNU/Linux compatible games on Steam has been growing rapidly. Check out the Steam store where you can find a wealth of high quality, GNU/Linux compatible games.

Most popular games, alas, only work on Windows and occasionally on macOS. Some Windows games can be run on GNU/Linux with Wine or its non-free variant CrossOver, which involves some unpleasant effort for the user. For a list of games known to work on Wine, see their games database.

Més preguntes?

Si teniu alguna pregunta que no es respongui aquí, hi ha un munt de comunitats que us poden ajudar. La nostra secció "Més" us ajudarà a trobar el lloc correcte on preguntar.

If you can think of a frequent question that we haven't answered yet, do let us know, or file an issue.