Frequently asked questions

Our page about GNU/Linux covers the essential information. We hope this FAQ list can help if you are more curious.

Pertanyaan Umum

Apakah "GNU/Linux" dan %quot;Linux" berbeda?

Anda dapat tetap menggunakan yang satu dan yang lainnya sebagai alternatif. Tentang apa ini semua?

Sebenarnya ,Linux mengacu kepada komponen inti (yang disebut kernel) yang terdapat di sistem GNU. Apa yang pengguna jalankan sekarang ini, lebih tepatnya adalah "Distribusi GNU/Linux".

Dalam prakteknya, kata "Linux" terdengar lebih baik (mengejutkan), dan sekarang ini orang-orang menyebut seluruh sistem operasi sebagai "Linux" saja. Hal ini menimbulkan kontroversi besar.

Calling the system GNU/Linux is much more meaningful, technically (end-users use a lot of "GNU" and a little of "Linux") but also philosophically: the strength and momentum of the Free Software movement started with and are still carried by the GNU project.

Menyebut sistem sebagai Linux terdengar lebih praktis dan menarik bagi pengguna komputer yang sering percaya Windows adalah satu-satunya hal di bumi.

To avoid confusion, we use "GNU/Linux" to refer to operating system distributions that include GNU software and the Linux kernel. When we use "Linux" without the GNU part, we refer to the kernel.

And what has that software to do with a GNU?

When Richard Stallman started to design GNU, the main system in use was Unix, which is proprietary. Because GNU is similar in function to (and compatible with) Unix, but is free software, he coined the term GNU which stands for GNU's Not Unix. It's a recursive acronym. If you enjoy that kind of humour, check out what GNU Hurd means.

Apakah Linux adalah sebuah merek terdaftar?

Yes. You cannot sell any random software under the name of Linux®. The trademark is held by the Linux Mark Institute.

Apakah GNU/Linux adalah satu-satunya sistem operasi bebas yang tersedia?

Tidak. GNU / Linux adalah sistem bebas yang paling banyak digunakan, namun sejumlah sistem lain yang juga ada.

These include the UNIX derivatives FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, the BeOS clone Haiku OS, the Windows NT clone ReactOS, the DOS clone FreeDOS, and Syllable, just to name a few.

Is macOS a distribution of GNU/Linux?

No. There are a few free software components in macOS, and it is technically similar to GNU/Linux systems. But overall, it is proprietary software: all the issues about Windows apply to it as well.

Memahami perangkat lunak bebas

Apakah "Open Source" dan "Free Software" sama?

Yes and no. Technically, the great majority of open source programs are free software and vice-versa.

Secara filosofi, hal ini sangat berbeda. Istilah "open source" diciptakan untuk membuat "perangkat lunak bebas" lebih menarik, para pendukungnya melihat perangkat lunak open source sebagai cara yang lebih baik untuk membuat perangkat lunak.

Supporters of the "free software" term value the freedom, not merely the way software is made, and thus argue that the term "open source" misses the point.

Istilah apapun yang Anda gunakan tergantung dari visi Anda terhadap perangkat lunak tersebut.

Why are some GNU/Linux distributions sold, not given away?

Some websites actually sell distributions of GNU/Linux. So, why do you write it is "free as speech and available at no charge"?

The concept of free software, refers to freedom, not price. You have the freedom to copy, study, modify, and give free software away.

Kebanyakan beberapa perusahaan mengembangkan perangkat lunak bebas, mendapatkan uang dengan cara menjual layanan terhadap perangkat lunak mereka, daripada menjual perangkat lunaknya itu sendiri. Hal ini seringkali dilakukan dengan cara menjual paket: pelanggan membeli CD, buku, dan dukungan teknis sekaligus. Perangkat lunaknya sendiri masih menjamin kebebasan Anda.

Selanjutnya: Salah kaprah tentang Perangkat Lunak Bebas | Brosur konsep FLOSS.

Why are some GNU/Linux distributions not fully free?

Some GNU/Linux distributions are available at no charge, but include restrictive software. Why is it so?

Secara umum ada tiga jenis aturan mengenai masuknya perangkat lunak non-bebas:

  • Beberapa distribusi GNU/Linux mengijinkan perangkat lunak tidak bebas dalam rangka mengaktifkan fungsi suatu perangkat keras. This happens because some hardware manufacturers such as NVidia do not care about their customers' freedoms, and only release restricting firmware and drivers (some of them don't even release anything, like Broadcom). These are available at no cost (they are freeware) but under restrictive licenses. Distributions such as Ubuntu thus include such components to improve hardware compatibility.

  • Some GNU/Linux distributors do not compromise on the freedom of software, and make sure their distribution are entirely free. Such is the case of Trisquel, which is a Ubuntu derivative with all restricting components removed.

  • Beberapa distro GNU/Linux merakit perangkat lunak yang bebas dan yang terbatas tanpa membedakan. Distro tersebut tidak ingin pengguna berfikir soal kebebasan, dan hanya mempromosikan kemampuan teknis dari produk mereka. Menggunakan distro semacam itu tidaklah lebih baik dari menggunakan Windows. Kami menghargai kebebasan Anda dan merekomendasikan untuk memilih secara hati-hati!

Is macOS also a free operating system?

Do all the reasons for avoiding Windows apply to macOS?

Hal yang cukup umum bagi pengguna Mac untuk percaya bahwa mereka dibebaskan dari pembatasan terkait Windows>/a>. Sayangnya bukan seperti itu yang terjadi.

macOS does have some low-level components which are free software; and Apple puts less energy into customer lock-in (with some notable efforts such as BootCamp).

However, the end-user is still fundamentally restricted — because of the proprietary license, he/she cannot use macOS for all purposes, nor copy, study, modify, or redistribute it.

Happily, because these freedoms matter a lot, it's possible to run popular GNU/Linux distributions (such as Ubuntu) on Mac computers.

Aren't GNU/Linux users the ones who make illegal downloads?

Isn't GNU/Linux about cracking, "piracy" and illegal download websites?

No. Wherever you read or heard this, you should update your views. GNU/Linux is completely distinct from such things. Whether you want to do them, or whether you prefer intelligent, legal downloads, GNU/Linux will work just as well as Windows. Unfortunately you can't identify gangsters by the make of their cars; the same thing goes for their operating system.

GNU/Linux dibuat oleh orang-orang yang tidak menyukai pemikiran bahwa semua komputer di dunia ini hanya menjalankan produk berpemilik dari satu perusahaan. Jelas tidak ada yang salah dengan hal itu!

Baca selanjutnya di artikel: Salah kaprah tentang Perangkat Lunak Bebas.

Is GNU/Linux a form of communism?

"Everything has to be free" and "No one owns anything" sounds somewhat frightening. Are GNU/Linux and its GPL License something for anarchists or communists?

GNU/Linux has nothing to do with a political system and anyone — regardless of their political views — can use it. We have this explained simply in our article Salah kaprah tentang Perangkat Lunak Bebas.

Installing GNU/Linux

Does GNU/Linux come pre-installed on computers?

Yes it does. LinuxPreloaded.com has built a website specially for that purpose, listing vendors that sell GNU/Linux desktops and laptops.

Perhatikan bahwa membeli perangkat keras baru tidak diperlukan untuk menggunakan GNU/Linux!

Apakah saya bisa mendapatkan GNU/Linux dalam bahasa saya sendiri?

Ya. Semua distribusi utama, seperti salah satu yang kami sarankan, semuanya tersedia dalam beberapa bahasa utama, dan memiliki dukungan untuk banyak jenis papan ketik.

Tidak seperti Windows, semua bahasa telah disediakan dalam setiap CD instalasi, jadi anda tidak perlu mengunduh (atau membayar!) versi yang lain sepenuhnya hanya untuk mengubah bahasa di komputer Anda.

Is it legal to install GNU/Linux on my computer?

There is a shiny Windows sticker on it! Am I allowed to erase Windows or use it together with GNU/Linux?

Yes. It is absolutely, completely legal, provided of course it's your computer!

Stiker itu sepenuhnya untuk pemasaran, tidak ada nilai legalitas. Kami percaya hal ini satu hak azasi untuk memilih perangkat lunak mana yang berjalan di perangkat keras milik kita.

In fact this right is threatened by the rise of things such as DRM and Trusted Computing. Read our article "Berjuang untuk masyarakat bebas" for more information.

Do I have to purchase a new computer to run GNU/Linux?

Tidak perlu. Itu akan berjalan dengan baik di komputer anda.

The only thing you might be worried about is using very recent special hardware, such as graphics cards. Otherwise, almost all GNU/Linux distributions can run on normal PCs (often called "i386" or "x86" computers), 64-bit-processor computers and Apple Mac computers. Read how you can try or install GNU/Linux on your computer, be it instead of or together with Windows.

Using GNU/Linux

Will Microsoft Office run on GNU/Linux?

No. It is technically possible to adapt Microsoft Office to GNU/Linux, but Microsoft isn't keen on allowing Office users to choose their operating system. There are other issues with MS Office and openness — like Microsoft's fierce opposition to supporting the OpenDocument format.

However, a complete, free, reliable office suite exists: LibreOffice. Or you can choose its close cousin, Apache OpenOffice. They will both happily use all your existing office files in MS-Word, MS-Excel, and MS-PowerPoint format, and are really free (both as in freedom and as in price). And they run on Windows as well as on GNU/Linux.

LibreOffice.org   OpenOffice.org

Dapatkah saya memutar DVD dan MP3 di GNU/Linux?

Jawaban singkat untuk pertanyaan ini bisa jadi "iya", tetapi ini hanya sebagian dari kenyataannya.

Quite a few GNU/Linux distributions do not include MP3 playback software due to the patent situation of the MP3 format. These patent issues do not affect the user directly, so most distributions make it fairly easy to install MP3 support over the Internet after the installation, making it possible to legally play MP3 files, for non-commercial use.

DVDs, on the other hand, are a more difficult situation. Most, if not all, DVDs are encrypted using a system called "CSS". There is a widely supported free software, called libdvdcss, capable of decrypting DVD videos. However, circumventing the restriction on your DVDs is illegal in many parts of the world, including the USA and the European Union.

There is a legal solution to play your DVDs on GNU/Linux where libdvdcss is illegal. The Fluendo company has developed an (non-free) application for that purpose which can be purchased from their website.

Non-encrypted DVDs, which include most home-made DVDs, play perfectly well with only free software.

Dapatkah saya memainkan game 3D populer di GNU/Linux?

Yes and no. Some games, for example the Quake series, Rust, Counter-Strike, Tomb Raider, Portal, Left 4 Dead, and many more have GNU/Linux versions. Since the release of the popular Steam platform to the GNU/Linux operating system, the number of GNU/Linux compatible games on Steam has been growing rapidly. Check out the Steam store where you can find a wealth of high quality, GNU/Linux compatible games.

Most popular games, alas, only work on Windows and occasionally on macOS. Some Windows games can be run on GNU/Linux with Wine or its non-free variant CrossOver, which involves some unpleasant effort for the user. For a list of games known to work on Wine, see their games database.

Ada pertanyaan lagi?

If you have a question that is not covered here, there are many communities to help you. Our "Berikutnya" section will help you find the right place to ask.

If you can think of a frequent question that we haven't answered yet, do let us know, or file an issue.