Frequently asked questions

Our page about GNU/Linux covers the essential information. We hope this FAQ list can help if you are more curious.

Bendri klausimai

Ar "GNU/Linux" ir "Linux" skiriasi?

Jūs naudojate tai vieną, tai kitą pavadinimą. Ką tai reiškia?

Siaurąja prasme, Linux apibūdina pagrindinį operacinės sistemos komponentą (dar vadinamą branduoliu), kuris naudojamas GNU sistemoje. Tai, ką žmonės kasdien naudoja, tiksliau vadinasi "GNU/Linux sistemos distribucijos".

Praktiškai pavadinimas "Linux" prigijo geriau, todėl šiandien žmonės visą sistemą vadina tiesiog "Linux". Tai kartais sukelia nemažai ginčų.

Calling the system GNU/Linux is much more meaningful, technically (end-users use a lot of "GNU" and a little of "Linux") but also philosophically: the strength and momentum of the Free Software movement started with and are still carried by the GNU project.

Vadinti sistemą Linux yra praktiškiau ir patraukliau tiems kompiuterių naudotojams, kurie dažnai tiki, kad Windows yra vienintelis dalykas Žemėje.

To avoid confusion, we use "GNU/Linux" to refer to operating system distributions that include GNU software and the Linux kernel. When we use "Linux" without the GNU part, we refer to the kernel.

And what has that software to do with a GNU?

When Richard Stallman started to design GNU, the main system in use was Unix, which is proprietary. Because GNU is similar in function to (and compatible with) Unix, but is free software, he coined the term GNU which stands for GNU's Not Unix. It's a recursive acronym. If you enjoy that kind of humour, check out what GNU Hurd means.

Ar Linux yra registruotas prekinis ženklas?

Yes. You cannot sell any random software under the name of Linux®. The trademark is held by the Linux Mark Institute.

Ar GNU/Linux - vienintelė laisva operacinė sistema?

Ne. GNU/Linux yra plačiausiai naudojama laisva sistema, tačiau yra ir keletas kitų sistemų.

These include the UNIX derivatives FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, the BeOS clone Haiku OS, the Windows NT clone ReactOS, the DOS clone FreeDOS, and Syllable, just to name a few.

Is macOS a distribution of GNU/Linux?

No. There are a few free software components in macOS, and it is technically similar to GNU/Linux systems. But overall, it is proprietary software: all the issues about Windows apply to it as well.

Laisvos programinės įrangos samprata

Ar "atviras kodas" ir "laisva programinė įranga" yra tas pats?

Yes and no. Technically, the great majority of open source programs are free software and vice-versa.

Filosofine prasme, šie terminai skiriasi. "Atviras kodas" buvo panaudotas, kad "laisva programinė įranga" būtų patrauklesnė; jos rėmėjai mano, kad atviro kodo programinė įranga yra geresnis būdas kurti programinę įrangą.

Supporters of the "free software" term value the freedom, not merely the way software is made, and thus argue that the term "open source" misses the point.

Kuri terminą naudosite, priklauso nuo jūsų programinės įrangos vizijos.

Why are some GNU/Linux distributions sold, not given away?

Some websites actually sell distributions of GNU/Linux. So, why do you write it is "free as speech and available at no charge"?

The concept of free software, refers to freedom, not price. You have the freedom to copy, study, modify, and give free software away.

Kai kurios kompanijos, kuriančios laisvą programinę įrangą, uždirba pinigus parduodamos paslaugas, susijusias su jų programine įranga, o ne pačią programinę įrangą. Tai kartais daroma, parduodant viską kaip rinkinį: klientas nusiperka kompaktinę plokštelę, knygą ir palaikymo sutartį vienu metu. Programinė įranga vis tiek gali garantuoti jūsų laisves.

Daugiau: Mitai apie laisvą programinę įrangą | FLOSS concept booklet.

Why are some GNU/Linux distributions not fully free?

Some GNU/Linux distributions are available at no charge, but include restrictive software. Why is it so?

Įterpiant nelaisvą programinę įrangą dažniausiai naudojami trys principai:

  • Kai GNU/Linux platintojai pateikia nelaisvą programinę įrangą tam, kad įgalintų tinkamą aparatinės įrangos naudojimą. This happens because some hardware manufacturers such as NVidia do not care about their customers' freedoms, and only release restricting firmware and drivers (some of them don't even release anything, like Broadcom). These are available at no cost (they are freeware) but under restrictive licenses. Distributions such as Ubuntu thus include such components to improve hardware compatibility.

  • Some GNU/Linux distributors do not compromise on the freedom of software, and make sure their distribution are entirely free. Such is the case of Trisquel, which is a Ubuntu derivative with all restricting components removed.

  • Kai kurie GNU/Linux platintojai surenka laisvą ir uždarą programinę įrangą be jokio skirstymo. Tokie distributoriai nemėgsta, kad jų vartotojai galvotų apie laisvę, ir reklamuoja tik jų produkto technines galimybes. Naudojimasis tokiomis distribucijomis - nė kiek ne geresnis nei naudojimasis Windows. Mes vertiname laisvę ir rekomenduojame rinktis atsargiai!

Is macOS also a free operating system?

Do all the reasons for avoiding Windows apply to macOS?

Dažnas atvejis, kai Mac vartotojai tiki, kad jie išvengia apribojimų, susijusių su Windows. Deja, taip nėra.

macOS does have some low-level components which are free software; and Apple puts less energy into customer lock-in (with some notable efforts such as BootCamp).

However, the end-user is still fundamentally restricted — because of the proprietary license, he/she cannot use macOS for all purposes, nor copy, study, modify, or redistribute it.

Happily, because these freedoms matter a lot, it's possible to run popular GNU/Linux distributions (such as Ubuntu) on Mac computers.

Aren't GNU/Linux users the ones who make illegal downloads?

Isn't GNU/Linux about cracking, "piracy" and illegal download websites?

No. Wherever you read or heard this, you should update your views. GNU/Linux is completely distinct from such things. Whether you want to do them, or whether you prefer intelligent, legal downloads, GNU/Linux will work just as well as Windows. Unfortunately you can't identify gangsters by the make of their cars; the same thing goes for their operating system.

GNU/Linux buvo sukurta žmonių, kuriems nepatinka mintis, kad visi pasaulio kompiuteriai veiktų, naudodami tik vienos kompanijos nuosavybinius produktus. Tame tikrai nėra nieko blogo!

Daugiau informacijos šiame straipsnyje: Mitai apie laisvą programinę įrangą.

Is GNU/Linux a form of communism?

"Everything has to be free" and "No one owns anything" sounds somewhat frightening. Are GNU/Linux and its GPL License something for anarchists or communists?

GNU/Linux has nothing to do with a political system and anyone — regardless of their political views — can use it. We have this explained simply in our article Mitai apie laisvą programinę įrangą.

Installing GNU/Linux

Does GNU/Linux come pre-installed on computers?

Yes it does. LinuxPreloaded.com has built a website specially for that purpose, listing vendors that sell GNU/Linux desktops and laptops.

Atkreipkite dėmesį, kad nauja aparatinė įranga nėra būtina, norint naudotis GNU/Linux!

Ar galiu gauti GNU/Linux savo kalba?

Taip. Visos pagrindinės distribucijos, tokios kaip tos kurias mes rekomenduojame, yra prieinamos visomis pagrindinėmis kalbomis ir palaiko daug klaviatūrų tipų.

Visos kalbos (ne taip kaip Windows) yra prieinamos kiekvienoje diegimo kompaktinėje plokštelėje, todėl jums nereikės siųstis (ar mokėti!) už kitą versiją vien tam, kad pakeistumėte kalbą kompiuteryje.

Is it legal to install GNU/Linux on my computer?

There is a shiny Windows sticker on it! Am I allowed to erase Windows or use it together with GNU/Linux?

Yes. It is absolutely, completely legal, provided of course it's your computer!

Lipdukas ant kompiuterio tėra marketinginis triukas, neturintis jokios teisinės reikšmės. Mes tikime fundamentalia naudotojo teise pasirinkti kokią programinę įrangą naudoti savo kompiuteryje.

In fact this right is threatened by the rise of things such as DRM and Trusted Computing. Read our article "Palaikykite laisvą visuomenę" for more information.

Do I have to purchase a new computer to run GNU/Linux?

Visiškai nebūtina. Ji puikiai veiks ir jūsų dabartiniame kompiuteryje.

The only thing you might be worried about is using very recent special hardware, such as graphics cards. Otherwise, almost all GNU/Linux distributions can run on normal PCs (often called "i386" or "x86" computers), 64-bit-processor computers and Apple Mac computers. Read how you can try or install GNU/Linux on your computer, be it instead of or together with Windows.

Using GNU/Linux

Will Microsoft Office run on GNU/Linux?

No. It is technically possible to adapt Microsoft Office to GNU/Linux, but Microsoft isn't keen on allowing Office users to choose their operating system. There are other issues with MS Office and openness — like Microsoft's fierce opposition to supporting the OpenDocument format.

However, a complete, free, reliable office suite exists: LibreOffice. Or you can choose its close cousin, Apache OpenOffice. They will both happily use all your existing office files in MS-Word, MS-Excel, and MS-PowerPoint format, and are really free (both as in freedom and as in price). And they run on Windows as well as on GNU/Linux.

LibreOffice.org   OpenOffice.org

Ar galiu žiūrėti savo DVD ir klausytis MP3 per GNU/Linux?

Paprastas atsakymas būtų "taip", tačiau tai tik dalis tiesos.

Quite a few GNU/Linux distributions do not include MP3 playback software due to the patent situation of the MP3 format. These patent issues do not affect the user directly, so most distributions make it fairly easy to install MP3 support over the Internet after the installation, making it possible to legally play MP3 files, for non-commercial use.

DVDs, on the other hand, are a more difficult situation. Most, if not all, DVDs are encrypted using a system called "CSS". There is a widely supported free software, called libdvdcss, capable of decrypting DVD videos. However, circumventing the restriction on your DVDs is illegal in many parts of the world, including the USA and the European Union.

There is a legal solution to play your DVDs on GNU/Linux where libdvdcss is illegal. The Fluendo company has developed an (non-free) application for that purpose which can be purchased from their website.

Non-encrypted DVDs, which include most home-made DVDs, play perfectly well with only free software.

Ar galiu žaisti populiarius trimačius žaidimus per GNU/Linux?

Yes and no. Some games, for example the Quake series, Rust, Counter-Strike, Tomb Raider, Portal, Left 4 Dead, and many more have GNU/Linux versions. Since the release of the popular Steam platform to the GNU/Linux operating system, the number of GNU/Linux compatible games on Steam has been growing rapidly. Check out the Steam store where you can find a wealth of high quality, GNU/Linux compatible games.

Most popular games, alas, only work on Windows and occasionally on macOS. Some Windows games can be run on GNU/Linux with Wine or its non-free variant CrossOver, which involves some unpleasant effort for the user. For a list of games known to work on Wine, see their games database.

Turite klausimų?

If you have a question that is not covered here, there are many communities to help you. Our "Plačiau" section will help you find the right place to ask.

If you can think of a frequent question that we haven't answered yet, do let us know, or file an issue.