GNU/Linux Frequently Asked Questions

Our page about GNU/Linux covers the essential information. We hope this FAQ list can help if you are more curious.

常规问题

“GNU/Linux”与“Linux”有什么不同吗?

一会提到这个,一会提另外一个,它们有什么区别?

Linux原本指代的是GNU系统内部的一个核心部件(称为内核)。准确地说,现在用户运行的是 GNU/Linux 系统的发行版。

实际上,“Linux”这个词要流行得多,今天对整个系统,人们就简单地称其为“Linux”。这引发了极大的争议。

Calling the system GNU/Linux is much more meaningful, technically (end-users use a lot of "GNU" and a little of "Linux") but also philosophically: the strength and momentum of the Free Software movement started with and are still carried by the GNU project.

称这个系统为 Linux 对那些常认为除了Windows还是Windows的计算机用户来说则更具有吸引力。

To avoid confusion, we use "GNU/Linux" to refer to operating system distributions that include GNU software and the Linux kernel. When we use "Linux" without the GNU part, we refer to the kernel.

And what has that software to do with a GNU?

When Richard Stallman started to design GNU, the main system in use was Unix, which is proprietary. Because GNU is similar in function to (and compatible with) Unix, but is free software, he coined the term GNU which stands for GNU's Not Unix. It's a recursive acronym. If you enjoy that kind of humour, check out what GNU Hurd means.

Linux是一个注册商标吗?

Yes. You cannot sell any random software under the name of Linux®. The trademark is held by the Linux Mark Institute.

GNU/Linux是唯一的自由操作系统吗?

不。GNU/Linux是目前为止使用最广的自由系统;但是还有不少其他系统存在。

These include the UNIX derivatives FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, the BeOS clone Haiku OS, the Windows NT clone ReactOS, the DOS clone FreeDOS, and Syllable, just to name a few.

Is macOS a distribution of GNU/Linux?

No. There are a few free software components in macOS, and it is technically similar to GNU/Linux systems. But overall, it is proprietary software: all the issues about Windows apply to it as well.

理解自由软件

“开源”与“自由软件”是一回事吗?

Yes and no. Technically, the great majority of open source programs are free software and vice-versa.

从哲学上说,它们有很大区别。“开源”是为了让“自由软件”更能吸引用户而创造的,其支持者认为开源是软件开发的更好方式。

Supporters of the "free software" term value the freedom, not merely the way software is made, and thus argue that the term "open source" misses the point.

选用哪个术语只取决于你看软件的视角。

Why are some GNU/Linux distributions sold, not given away?

Some websites actually sell distributions of GNU/Linux. So, why do you write it is "free as speech and available at no charge"?

The concept of free software, refers to freedom, not price. You have the freedom to copy, study, modify, and give free software away.

大多数开发自由软件的公司靠推销围绕其软件的服务来赚钱,而不是软件本身。有时通过打包所有内容进行出售:客户一次性购买CD、书以及支持。软件仍然是自由使用的。

更多信息: 人们对自由软件有哪些误解 | FLOSS 概念小册.

Why are some GNU/Linux distributions not fully free?

Some GNU/Linux distributions are available at no charge, but include restrictive software. Why is it so?

对包含非自由软件,有三种典型的策略:

  • 有些GNU/Linux发行版允许非自由软件是为了使硬件发挥其功能。 This happens because some hardware manufacturers such as NVidia do not care about their customers' freedoms, and only release restricting firmware and drivers (some of them don't even release anything, like Broadcom). These are available at no cost (they are freeware) but under restrictive licenses. Distributions such as Ubuntu thus include such components to improve hardware compatibility.

  • Some GNU/Linux distributors do not compromise on the freedom of software, and make sure their distribution are entirely free. Such is the case of Trisquel, which is a Ubuntu derivative with all restricting components removed.

  • 有些 GNU/Linux 发行版在组合自由与限制性软件上毫不区分。这类发行者不让用户考虑其自身的自由,只顾着为他们产品的技术性能打广告。用这类发行版比用Windows好不到哪儿去。我们看重你的自由,建议你谨慎选择!

Is macOS also a free operating system?

避免使用Windows的所有理由同样适用于 macOS 吗?

Mac用户普遍认为他们不受Windows相关限制的影响。可惜并非如此。

macOS 底层的一些组件确实是 自由软件; 而且苹果在锁定用户上并没有花太大力气(但也有比如 BootCamp 的限制).

However, the end-user is still fundamentally restricted — because of the proprietary license, he/she cannot use macOS for all purposes, nor copy, study, modify, or redistribute it.

Happily, because these freedoms matter a lot, it's possible to run popular GNU/Linux distributions (such as Ubuntu) on Mac computers.

Aren't GNU/Linux users the ones who make illegal downloads?

Isn't GNU/Linux about cracking, "piracy" and illegal download websites?

No. Wherever you read or heard this, you should update your views. GNU/Linux is completely distinct from such things. Whether you want to do them, or whether you prefer intelligent, legal downloads, GNU/Linux will work just as well as Windows. Unfortunately you can't identify gangsters by the make of their cars; the same thing goes for their operating system.

一群不满全世界的电脑只运行一家公司私有产品的人创造了GNU/Linux 。这当然没有错!

继续阅读:人们对自由软件有哪些误解

Is GNU/Linux a form of communism?

"Everything has to be free" and "No one owns anything" sounds somewhat frightening. Are GNU/Linux and its GPL License something for anarchists or communists?

GNU/Linux has nothing to do with a political system and anyone — regardless of their political views — can use it. We have this explained simply in our article 人们对自由软件有哪些误解.

Installing GNU/Linux

Does GNU/Linux come pre-installed on computers?

Yes it does. LinuxPreloaded.com has built a website specially for that purpose, listing vendors that sell GNU/Linux desktops and laptops.

使用GNU/Linux无须您购买新的硬件

我能得到支持我自己语言的GNU/Linux吗?

可以。所有主流的发行版,比如我们推荐的这些,都支持多种主要的语言和很多的键盘类型。

不像Windows,你不必因为要变更你电脑上的语言就去下载(或购买!)又一个完整版,所有的语言都包含在每一张安装CD上。

Is it legal to install GNU/Linux on my computer?

There is a shiny Windows sticker on it! Am I allowed to erase Windows or use it together with GNU/Linux?

Yes. It is absolutely, completely legal, provided of course it's your computer!

那标签只关乎销售,不含丝毫的法定价值。我们相信选择让何种软件在我们的硬件上运行是一项基本权利

In fact this right is threatened by the rise of things such as DRM and Trusted Computing. Read our article "代表自由社会" for more information.

Do I have to purchase a new computer to run GNU/Linux?

完全没必要。它可以在你自己的电脑上舒舒服服地运行。

The only thing you might be worried about is using very recent special hardware, such as graphics cards. Otherwise, almost all GNU/Linux distributions can run on normal PCs (often called "i386" or "x86" computers), 64-bit-processor computers and Apple Mac computers. Read how you can try or install GNU/Linux on your computer, be it instead of or together with Windows.

Using GNU/Linux

Microsoft Office 可以运行在 GNU/Linux 上?

No. It is technically possible to adapt Microsoft Office to GNU/Linux, but Microsoft isn't keen on allowing Office users to choose their operating system. There are other issues with MS Office and openness — like Microsoft's fierce opposition to supporting the OpenDocument format.

However, a complete, free, reliable office suite exists: LibreOffice. Or you can choose its close cousin, Apache OpenOffice. They will both happily use all your existing office files in MS-Word, MS-Excel, and MS-PowerPoint format, and are really free (both as in freedom and as in price). And they run on Windows as well as on GNU/Linux.

LibreOffice.org   OpenOffice.org

在GNU/Linux中能播放DVD和MP3吗?

一个初步的回答是“可以”,然而这只说对了一半。

Quite a few GNU/Linux distributions do not include MP3 playback software due to the patent situation of the MP3 format. These patent issues do not affect the user directly, so most distributions make it fairly easy to install MP3 support over the Internet after the installation, making it possible to legally play MP3 files, for non-commercial use.

DVD的状况则要麻烦得多。大多数的,即便非全部,DVD都通过一种叫“CSS”的系统加密。有一名叫libdvdcss的获得广泛支持的自由软件,能解密DVD影像。然而,在全世界的很多地方,包括美国和欧盟,逃避加于DVD上的限制是非法的。

There is a legal solution to play your DVDs on GNU/Linux where libdvdcss is illegal. The Fluendo company has developed an (non-free) application for that purpose which can be purchased from their website.

未加密的DVD,包括大多数家庭DVD,仅用自由软件就可以完美无缺地播放。

在GNU/Linux下能玩流行的3D游戏吗?

Yes and no. Some games, for example the Quake series, Rust, Counter-Strike, Tomb Raider, Portal, Left 4 Dead, and many more have GNU/Linux versions. Since the release of the popular Steam platform to the GNU/Linux operating system, the number of GNU/Linux compatible games on Steam has been growing rapidly. Check out the Steam store where you can find a wealth of high quality, GNU/Linux compatible games.

Most popular games, alas, only work on Windows and occasionally on macOS. Some Windows games can be run on GNU/Linux with Wine or its non-free variant CrossOver, which involves some unpleasant effort for the user. For a list of games known to work on Wine, see their games database.

更多问题?

如果您还有这里没有覆盖到的问题,有许多的社区能够帮助您。我们的“更多”栏目会帮助您找到正确的提问地点。

If you can think of a frequent question that we haven't answered yet, do let us know, or file an issue.